Tuesday, April 19, 2011

Motivational Theories

Several theories and authors include motivational factors in their work. The most well-known theory associated with motivation is Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Maslow suggests individuals have five different sets of needs. The needs are listed in chronological order based on needs: Physiological needs, Safety needs, Love and belongings needs, Esteem needs, and Need for self-actualization (Ormond, 2008). “When two or more of these needs are unmet, people tend to satisfy them in a particular sequence” (Ormond, 2008).
Maslow’s Heirachy of Needs
Reversal Theory
The Reversal theory is one of the motivational frameworks that examine the human’s subjective experience and behavior (Sit & Lidner, 2006).
Frederick Herzberg’s motivation and hygiene factors
Frederick Herzberg was considered one of the greatest original thinkers of motivational theory. Herzberg published his first theory about motivation in 1959. The main significance of Herzberg’s theory suggests satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work is stimulated from different factors rather than the same factors as previously assumed (Chapman, 2010).
Please click here and here to see Herzberg’s motivator and hygiene factors.

Alderfer's ERG theory

Clayton Alderfer developed the ERG theory based on the work of Maslow. The ERG theory has three main components : Existence, Relatedness, and Growth. The theory is heirachial that extistence needs take priority over relatedness, and relatedness has priority over growth. Unlike Maslow's theory, different levels of needs can be accomplished simultaneously (Internet Center for Management and Buisness Adminstration, 2010).
Comparsion of Theories


Chapman, A. (2010).Frederick Herzberg’s motivational theory. Retrieved from

Internet Center for Management and Buisness Adminstration. (2010). ERG theory.Retrieved from


Ormond, J. (2008). Human learning (5th edtion). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson
Sit, C., & Linder, K. (2006). Situational state balances and participation motivation

       in youth sport. Retrieved from


Advantages and Disadvantages of Motivation

Motivation provides us with energy to purse outcomes. The energy may come from an inside source or an outside source. These sources can be defined as either extrinsic or intrinsic motivation (Rodgers & Loitz, 2009). Extrinsic motivation “lies outside of the individual and the task being performed”, whereas, intrinsic motivation “lies within the individual and task” (Ormond, 2008). The task is found to be enjoyable and worthwhile alone.

There are several advantages and disadvantages to each type of motivation.
Advantages of Intrinsic Motivation:
Focuses on the subject rather than the reward or punishment
Disadvantages of Intrinsic Motivation:
Slow to change the behavior
Requires lengthy preparation and special attention
A variety of approaches may be needed to motivate students
Advantages of Extrinsic Motivation:
Quickly changes behaviors
Requires little effort or preparation
Requires little knowledge of the student
Disadvantages of Extrinsic Motivation:
Provides distraction from learning
Difficulty in determining appropriate rewards and punishment
Ineffective after a long period of time
Once the reward is removed, motivation is lost
Both motivational types can influence the learning behavior of a student. Research suggests that extrinsic rewards can have a negative impact on intrinsic motivation; therefore, extrinsic methods should be used carefully and sparingly (Vanderbilt University: Center for Teaching, 2011).

Rodgers, W., & Loitz, C. (2009). The role of motivation in behavior change.  ACSM’s Health & Fitness 

       Journal, 13 (1), 7. doi: 10.1249/FIT.0b013e3181916d11
Vanderbilt University: Center for Teaching. (2011). Motivating students. Retrieved from


Usage and Application of Motivation

Motivation has several basic principles that are applicable to learning.
1. The environment may be used to focus the student’s attention on the information that needs to be learned
Instructors who create a warm and inviting environment will promote favorable attitudes towards learning. Visual aids, booklets, and posters capture student’s attention and curiosity which motivates them to learn.
2. Provide incentives to motivate students to learn
Incentives may include privileges, prizes, or praise from the instructor. It is the instructor’s responsibility to determine the incentive that will motivate the student to learn. In a general sense, self-motivation without rewards is not sufficient. It is essential that students find satisfaction and gratification from learning.
3. Internal motivation is longer lasting than external motivation
4. Learning is most effective when and if the student is ready to learn
Some students must be given extra time to determine their readiness to learn. It is the instructor’s role to encourage the student to develop the readiness. If the subject must be learned immediately, the instructor should supervise the learning process and encourage learning through repetition and supervision.
5. Motivation is enhanced by the presentation and organization of the instructional material (Weller, 2005)
Motivational Strategies
  • Promote a positive environment
  • Remove components of learning that may lead to failure
  • Plan activities that can be achieved and will increase self-esteem
  • Examine the need for change in the learning style and activities
  • Provide consistent feedback (Weller, 2005)
  • Click here to learn more motivational strategies

Weller, M. (2005). General principals of motivation. Los Angeles Business Journal. Retrieved from

Monday, April 18, 2011

Importance of Motivation

Motivation is the key ingredient to success. Without motivation, one does not have the will to continue to grow and learn. According to Ormond (2008) motivation:
  • Increases energy and activity level
  • Directs individuals toward certain short-term and long-term goals
  •  Initiates certain activities and encourages the individual to continue those chosen activities
  • Affects learning strategies and other cognitive processes


Ormond, J. (2008). Human learning (5th edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson

Thursday, April 14, 2011

What is Motivation

Motivation literally means “the desire to do things” (Psychology Today, 2011). Motivation is what gets us out of bed every morning. Motivation is the crucial element that allows individuals to set and attain goals.
Motivation may also be defined “ as the force that account for the arousal , selection, direction, and continuation of behavior” (Mifflin, 1997)

Motivation is " an incentive or bribe that induces you to action" (Nuget & Vitale, 2000). Motivation can come from within such as learning a new task or attaining a short-term or long-term goal. Motivation can also come from without such as obtaining respect from peers, receiving an reward, or earning a high grade (Nuget & Vitale, 2000).


Mifflin, H. (1997). Motivation. Psychology applied to teaching. Retrieved from

Nuget, P., & Vitale, P. (2000). Test success (4th edition). Philadelphia, PA: FA Davis Company

Psychology Today. (2011). Motivation. Retrieved from


Wednesday, April 13, 2011

What Drives You to Succeed?


For this assignment, I am to create a blog about a learning concept. The learning concept I have chosen is motivation. Motivation is the one of the most important concepts in learning, because motivation is the driving force of learning. During my duration of blogging, I will discuss the definition, importance, usage and applications, advantages/disadvantages, and theories that incorporate motivation. Please be kind, this is my first blog. Hope you all enjoy and LEARN something new.